## Information Geometry

#### July 26, 2021

Information geometry is the study of 'statistical manifolds', which are spaces where each point is a hypothesis about some state of affairs. This subject, usually considered a branch of statistics, has important applications to machine learning and somewhat unexpected connections to evolutionary biology. To learn this subject, I'm writing a series of articles on it. You can navigate forwards and back through these using the blue arrows. And by clicking the links that say "on Azimuth", you can see blog entries containing these articles. Those let you read comments about my articles—and also make comments or ask questions of your own!

Eric Auld has created a PDF of some these posts and some other blog articles of mine: Information Geometry

• Part 1 - the Fisher information metric from statistical mechanics.
• Part 2 - connecting the statistical mechanics approach to the usual definition of the Fisher information metric.
• Part 3 - the Fisher information metric on any manifold equipped with a map to the mixed states of some system.
• Part 4 - the Fisher information metric as the real part of a complex-valued quantity whose imaginary part measures quantum uncertainty.
• Part 5 - an example: the harmonic oscillator in a heat bath.
• Part 6 - relative entropy.
• Part 7 - the Fisher information metric as the matrix of second derivatives of relative entropy.
• Part 8 - information geometry and evolution: how natural selection resembles Bayesian inference, and how it's related to relative entropy.
• Part 9 - information geometry and evolution: the replicator equation and the decline of entropy as a successful species takes over.
• Part 10 - information geometry and evoluton: how entropy changes under the replicator equation.
• Part 11 - information geometry and evolution: the decline of relative information.
• Part 12 - information geometry and evolution: an introduction to evolutionary game theory.
• Part 13 - information geometry and evolution: the decline of relative information as a population approaches an evolutionarily stable state.
• Part 14 - open Markov processes and the principle of minimium dissipation. (Joint with Blake Pollard.)
• Part 15 - how relative entropy changes in open Markov processes. (Joint with Blake Pollard.)
• Part 16 - an updated version of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, linking the replicator equation and the Fisher information metric.
• Part 17 - symplectic and contact geometry in thermodynamics.
• Part 18 - symplectic and contact geometry in probability theory.
• Part 19 - surprisal as analogous to momentum, and an overview of the analogy between classical mechanics, thermodynamics and probability theory.
• Part 20 - developing the connection between thermodynamics and probability theory using statistical manifolds.
• Part 21 - the basic properties of the Gibbs distribution, which maximizes entropy subject to constraints on expected values of a list of random variables.
The following papers are spinoffs of the above series of blog articles. You can also read blog articles summarizing these papers:
I also have some talks connected to this work:

You should call it entropy, for two reasons. In the first place your uncertainty function has been used in statistical mechanics under that name, so it already has a name. In the second place, and more important, no one really knows what entropy really is, so in a debate you will always have the advantage. - John von Neumann, giving advice to Claude Shannon on what to name his discovery.